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The Umbrella Term

Biofeedback in the most general terms is the act of receiving feedback from your body via a visual, auditory, and/or touch response. The idea that we learn from feedback relayed from our environment back to our bodies was put into motion by some of the early psychologists you may remember from school, B.F. Skinner and Edward Thorndike, who proposed that humans learn through what was coined Operant Conditioning. 

There are many types of biofeedback training.


EMG- assesses muscle conductance of a particular area in the body

Uses: rehabilitation of muscle function from sports injuries, surgeries, child birth, other traumas that affect muscle function such as whiplash from a car accident

HRV-assesses variation in heart rate

Uses: Anxiety, high stress, cardiac function improvment

EEG- Assesses brain wave activity

Uses: brain injuries, anxiety, attention deficit, memory, executive function, word finding

Thermal- assesses temperature response to a situation

Uses: stress

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Complaint: ANXIETY

Above: Imaging Assessment: Quantitative EEG

Below: Post 10 sessions of Neurofeedback Training

Complaint: Resolving

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Neurofeedback is used by the military to address PTSD and mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

Relative Sensitivity and Validity of QEEG Neurofeedback vs rtfMRI Neurofeedback From 2010-2011 the US Army at Fort Campbell tested 2 – 4 channel Z score Neurofeedback as part of the Warrior Resilience Rehabilitation program for soldiers from Afghanistan suffering from PTSD and/or mild traumatic brain injury. The results of the Neurofeedback treatment were of sufficient benefit to implement LORETA Z score neurofeedback in 2012. Fort Campbell has purchased six NeuroGuide Z score Neurofeedback systems that are part of the standard of care for injured soldiers.



Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Biofeedback uses the variability in the rhythm of your heart rate to assess health. Using HRV to improve the variability in the rhythm helps to decrease stress and anxiety , and improve cardiac function. Decreasing anxiety and improving cardiac function can lead to improved cognitive function, memory, and increased energy. .


Question: What does a typical neurofeedback appointment look like?


First Session: Quantitative EEG assessment

Follow-up sessions: Auditory and visual feedback in response to parameters put in place specific to your brain activity and goals.

Question: Are clinicans B.C.I.A. certified to perform neurofeeedback?

Answer: Yes

Question: Are clinicians certified to read QEEGs?

Answer: yes

Question: How many sessions do you recommend for neurofeedback training?

Answer: It depends on the person and the complaint as to how many they need but most patients start with 12 sessions.